Mary Wahl (Woods)
Boolean operators are words (or, and, not) used to connect search terms to expand (or) or narrow (and, not) a search within a database to locate relevant information. Boolean operators are also called logical operators or connectors.
It is helpful to diagram the effects of these operators:
women or females
|Or retrieves records that contain any of the search terms. It expands the search. Therefore, use "or" in between terms that have the same meaning (synonyms) or equal value to the search.|
women and media
|And retrieves records that contain all of the search terms. It narrows or limits the search. Therefore, use "and" in between terms that are required to make the search specific.|
image not weight
|Not eliminates records that contain a search term. It narrows or limits the search. Therefore, use "not" in front of a term to ensure that the search will not include that term. Warning: Some databases use "and not" instead of "not." Check the database help screen.|
Looking for images? Try searching these databases:
A digital archive containing over 1.6 million world art and architecture images.
Berg Fashion Library
Provides cross-searchable access to interdisciplinary and integrated text, image, and journal content on world dress and fashion. Includes the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, a specially-created taxonomy, an e-book collection, and an extensive color image bank as well as other resources. Access restricted to 3 users at a time.
Oxford Art Online
Though primarily used as a reference source, this database includes images in many of its entries! Includes The Dictionary of Art; The Oxford Companion to Western Art; The Encyclopedia of Aesthetics; and The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms.
When following guides or "cheat sheets", remember to double-check your citations against the most recent Chicago Manual publication before turning in your paper.
Here are other resources you may find useful:
Writing About Art
Here are some selected books in the Library on writing about art:
Barnet, S. (2011). A Short Guide to Writing About Art. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Bernstein, M. , & Yatchisin, G. (2001). Writing for the Visual Arts. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Sayre, H. (2002). Writing About Art. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Types of Resources
Primary sources are original materials on which other works are based. It includes material such as letters, diaries, museum records, interviews and fieldwork. In some cases, newspaper articles may be primary sources if the material provides a first-hand account of an event.
- Original work of art
- Memoir, blog post, or other personal narrative written by an artist
- News item describing an artist talk
- Interview of an artist
Secondary sources describe, analyze, review or summarize primary sources.
- Research article critiquing an artist's complete body of work
- News item critiquing an exhibition
- Book about a style of painting
- Most databases allow for a symbol to be used at the end of a word to retrieve variant endings of that word. This is known as truncation.
- Using truncation will broaden your search. For example,
bank* will retrieve: bank or banks or banking or banker or bankruptcy, etc.
- Databases and Internet search engines use different symbols to truncate. In general, most of the Library's databases use the asterisk (*) ; however, the exclamation point (!) is used in LexisNexis. Check the database help screen to find the correct truncation symbol.
- Be careful using truncation. Truncating after too few letters will retrieve terms that are not relevant. For example:
cat* will also retrieve cataclysm, catacomb, catalepsy, catalog, etc.
It's best to use the boolean operator "or" in these instances (cat or cats).
Visit the OneSearch FAQ to learn all about how to use the library's new online OneSearch tool to find articles, books and more. Or, watch the How to Use OneSearch video:
Creating an Annotated Bibliography
What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography is a list of sources such as books, articles, and documents. Each source in the bibliography is represented by a citation that includes the author (if given), title, and publication details of the source. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to help the reader evaluate whether the work cited is relevant to a specific research topic or line of inquiry.
Annotations versus abstracts
Abstracts are brief statements that present the main points of the original work. They normally do not include an evaluation of the work itself.
Annotations could be descriptive or evaluative, or a combination of both. A descriptive annotation summarizes the scope and content of a work whereas an evaluative annotation provides critical comment.
What an annotation usually includes?
Generally, annotations should be no more than 150 words (or 4-6 sentences long). They should be concise and well-written. Depending on your assignment, annotations may include some or all of the following information:
- Main focus or purpose of the work,
- Intended audience for the work,
- Usefulness or relevance to your research topic (or why it did not meet your expectations)
- Special features of the work that were unique or helpful
- Background and credibility of the author
- Conclusions or observations reached by the author
- Conclusions or observations reached by you
Which citation style to use
There are many style manuals with specific instructions on how to format your annotated bibliography. The style you use may depend on your subject discipline or the preference of your instructor. Whatever the format, be consistent with the same style throughout the bibliography.
Consult our sample style sheets for various Style Guides for examples of how to format citations in MLA, APA, or other style formats.
Citation Formatting Tools
Following are tools and resources helpful in managing citations:
EndNote - online tool for collecting, managing, and creating a bibliography from your citations.
See Managing Citations Using EndNote Web for more information on this tool.
EasyBib - MLA style bibliography composer
"References" built-in feature in Microsoft Word
Son of Citation Machine - MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian citation style composer
Using Google Scholar
You can find items the Oviatt Library owns using Google Scholar's "Find Text" capabilities. To activate the capabilities for your browser:
- Select Settings (near the top of the page), then Library links from the left menu
- In the search box, type "CSUN" and click the magnifying glass to perform search
- Check the box next to "CSU, Northridge (SFX Find It at CSUN)"
- Click Save
After performing a search in Google Scholar, select the SFX Find It at CSUN link (to the right of the article) or the SFX: Additional Options link (located below the article description) for access to online full text, Oviatt Library holdings information, and Interlibrary Loan.