Search for Public Schools (National Center for Education Statistics). Search by Zip Code to identify community schools, then view the data available on each school and its students.
American Factfinder (Census Bureau). Population and housing data from Census 2010 searchable by zip code. Educational attainment and language spoken at home data is in Summary File 3 (SF3).
Sources covering California only
Rand California (Oviatt Library subscription) K-12 Education includes enrollment and student demographics, completion and dropout rates, educational attainment, expenditures and revenues, staff salaries, test scores and performance, private schools. Higher Education includes degrees earned, enrollment and student demographics, finances & costs, institutions, staff and employment. Includes the following, many of which are based on data from the California Department of Education, such as enrollment, educational attainment, staffing, expenditures, test scores, etc.